Nocturnal hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in pediatric renal transplant recipients in South India

Authors : Pais P, Dello Strologo L, Iyengar A, Velusamy V, Greenbaum LA

Publication Year : 2020

Abstract :

HTN after renal transplantation is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. ABPM allows diagnosis of masked HTN and isolated nocturnal HTN. Longitudinal ABPM data in children post-transplant are limited. ABPM was performed in children post-transplant and repeated in 6-12 months. BP indices were used to determine the prevalence of masked HTN, masked uncontrolled HTN (masked HTN in patients on antihypertensive medications), and isolated nocturnal HTN. Linear regression determined the association between LVMI and ABPM indices. Thirty children underwent a baseline ABPM. Ambulatory HTN was present in 25 (83%). Masked HTN was present in 18 (60%) and isolated nocturnal HTN in 13 (43%). Nocturnal ambulatory BP was higher than corresponding daytime BPs (P  < .001 for systolic and diastolic) and 25 (83%) had a blunted nocturnal dip. Prednisone dose predicted nocturnal DBP index and DBP load (r2  = .40, P = .024 and r2  = .178, P = .02). ABPM was repeated in 18 patients within 11 (±3) months. BP indices decreased with time, but nocturnal BPs remained higher than daytime (P < .001 for SBP and DBP). Blunted nocturnal dip did not improve. LVH was present in 12 (57%). LVMI was directly related to the nocturnal SBP index (r2  = .377, P = .003) and nocturnal DBP index (r2  = .493, P  < .001). We found no association between LVMI and daytime BP indices. The prevalence of masked HTN, isolated nocturnal HTN, and blunted nocturnal dip was high in children with kidney transplants. Nocturnal BP predicted LVMI. Ambulatory BP improved on longitudinal follow-up, but the pattern of isolated nocturnal HTN persisted.